WIND IS ABLE TO TRANSPORT THE SMALLEST PARTICLES OF ATMOSPHERIC PARTICULATE MATTER (PM).
Wind erosion is a dominant geomorphological process in arid landscapes. Its effects contribute to the loss of soil resources and the emission of mineral dust, with major impacts on regional climate, biogeochemical cycles and human health. Wind erosion occurs when…
The Environmental Quality Incentives Program (EQIP) is a voluntary program that provides financial and technical assistance to agricultural producers to plan and implement conservation practices that improve soil, water, plant, animal, air and related natural resources on agricultural land and non-industrial private forestland. EQIP may also help producers meet Federal, State, Tribal, and local environmental regulations. Some of these resources concerns may include: soil and wind erosion, gully erosion, nutrient management plans aka Biological Opinions, wildlife habitat, etc.
THE NEED FOR A HOLISTIC AND FLEXIBLE APPROACH
Demographic pressures, without substantial changes in traditional agricultural practices, have resulted in widespread erosion of the soil’s fertility.The growth of extensive rainfed farming in order to feed the growing population has brought marginal land, traditionally used for pastures, into cultivation.Fallow time has been reduced, or sometimes eliminated. The reduction of vegetal cover has left the land exposed to wind and water erosion, as fields have been cleared of trees, shrubs and grasses for cultivation, wood for fuel and construction and fodder.
- Grading & Drainage
- Sustainable Development
- Soil Taxonomy
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PERFECTING DESERTIFICATION SOLUTIONS
Atmospherical and Deposition events were a major factor in the creation of the Dust Bowl of the 1930s. Drought and farming practices contributed to the damage caused by the wind. In arid climates around the world, the wind is the primary source of erosion.
The Environmental Quality Incentives Program (EQIP) is a voluntary program that provides financial and technical assistance to agricultural producers to plan and implement conservation practices that improve soil, water, plant, animal, air and related natural resources on agricultural land and non–industrial private forestland.
In particular NRCS provides technical and financial assistance to implement conservation practices in a manner that promotes agricultural production, forest management, and environmental quality as compatible goals; optimize conservation benefits; and help agricultural producers meet Federal, State, and local environmental requirements. The intensity of global warming and deforestation from logging, agricultural production and other economic activities, adds more atmospheric CO2 than the sum total of cars and trucks on the world’s roads.
Conservation benefits are reflected in the differences between anticipated effects of treatment in comparison to existing or benchmark conditions. Differences may be expressed by narrative, quantitative, visual, or other means. Estimated or projected impacts are used as a basis for making informed conservation decisions by applicants and NRCS to help determine which projects to approve for EQIP assistance.
Israel, which is 97 percent dry land, was one of the first countries to begin addressing this crisis. For decades, Israel has been perfecting desertification solutions. With increasing soil erosion, salinization and groundwater mismanagement, it’s time to share them with the world.
From generations of experience, they know that you cannot continually take from the soil without giving back, make recommendations for the location and nature of erosion control interventions. Farmers are among the world’s first and finest conservationists. Farmers understand better than anyone that clean water, clear air and healthy soil are the raw materials for agricultural production. A fundamental barrier of conventional farming begs the question of the fostering of topsoil erosion, especially on sloping land. Tillage leaves the ground surface bare and vulnerable to runoff, and each pass of the plow pushes soil downhill. As a result, the soil thins over time. How long this process takes depends not only on how fast plowing pushes soil downhill–and wind or runoff carries it away–but also on how fast the underlying rocks break down to form new soil.1.
NO–TILL PRODUCTION SYSTEMS
Soils that have lost part or all of their surface layer are usually harder to till and have lower productivity. To compensate for this loss, better fertilization, liming, and other management practices should be used. Increasing the organic matter content of an eroded soil often improves tillage as well as water and nutrient holding capacity.
Fugitive dust is small airborne particle called particulate matter. These small airborne particles have the potential to adversely affect human health or the environment. The EPA defines fugitive dust as
particulate matter that is generated or emitted from open air operations (emissions that do not pass through a stack or a vent)
No–till farming (also called zero tillage or direct drilling) is a way of growing crops or pasture from year to year without disturbing the soil through tillage. No–till is an agricultural technique which increases the amount of water that infiltrates into the soil and increases organic matter retention and cycling of nutrients in the soil.
In many agricultural regions it can reduce or eliminate soil erosion. It increases the amount and variety of life in and on the soil, including disease-causing organisms and disease suppression organisms.
The most powerful benefit of no–tillage is improvement in soil biological fertility, making soils more resilient. Farm operations are made much more efficient, particularly improved time of sowing and better trafficability of farm operations.
Wheat farmers in eastern Oregon and Washington who use no–till production systems can substantially stem soil erosion and enhance efforts to protect water quality, according to research by U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA) scientists.
Mark Horstman examines the contested science measuring particle pollution along the coal corridor of Autralia second in size only to Indonesia, the potential health fallout for locals and air pollution from the coal industry : a deadly threat to human health.